Biology/Biology Pathology set 2 Sample Test,Sample questions

 A 50-year old woman presents with back pain. X-rays suggest a malignant deposit in the 10th thoracic vertebra. The least likely primary site is





Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:37:55

 A typical feature of AIDS

1.Decreased delayed type hypersensitivity reaction



4.Increase CD4 and T cells

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:29:38

 All of the following are features of rheumatic fever except


2.subcutaneous nodules

3.erythema nodosum

4. elevated antistreptolysin

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:20:46

 All of the following are neoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer except

1. Cushing’s syndrome

2.syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion


4.carcinoid syndrome

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:20:02

 All of the following organisms cause a clinical effect via the production of an exotoxin except

1.Clostridium tetani

2.Staphylococcus aureus

3.E. coli

4.Pseudomonas aerugenosa

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:41:11

 Cor Pulmonale may be caused by

1. congenital heart disease

2.mitral stenosis

3. left ventricular failure

4.primary pulmonary hypertension

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:01:30

 In apoptosis

1.It involves physiologic and pathologic stimuli

2.Histologically, it involves coagulation necrosis

3. Its DNA breakdown is random and diffuse

4.Its mechanism involves ATP depletion

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:32:49

 In compensated heart failure

1. right atrial pressure drops

2.maximum cardiac output is unchanged

3. resting cardiac output is unchanged

4.renin level eventually drops below premorbid level

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:59:27

 In viral hepatitis

1.the majority of cases of acute Hepatitis B infection result in a carrier state, without clinical evidence of disease

2. anti HB s appears in the first week of infection

3.anti HCV IgG does not confer immunity to Hepatitis C

4.the major cause of death from Hepatitis B is hepatocellular carcinoma

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:14:12

 Neutrophilia is generally caused by all of the following except

1.Inflammatory disease

2.Bacterial infection

3.Viral infection


Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:48:23

 Pneumocystis carinii

1.Produces pneumocystis pneumonia in normal persons

2.Causes a Ghon’s focus in the lung

3.Causes patchy atelectasis

4. Is a fungus

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:10:34

 Regarding haemorrhagic infarction of the brain, which of the following is not true usually results from an embolic event

2. it usually contains multiple petechial haemorrhages which may be confluent

3.the haemorrhages are presumed to be secondary to reperfusion injury

4.the haemorrhages are presumed to be secondary to reperfusion injury

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:39:51

 Regarding septic shock

1.Endotoxin is the only cause

2.Marked vasoconstriction occurs in the non-infected tissue

3. Cardiac output is low in 75% of patients

4. Endotoxin entering the circulation causes an effect very similar to anaphylaxis

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:11:43

 Which of the following is malignant

1.Squamous cell papilloma

2.Hydatidiform mole


4. Mature teratoma

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:53:05

 Which of the following tumour is benign




4.Ewing’s tumour

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:34:39

 Which of the following tumour is benign




4.Ewing’s tumour

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:35:56

A young baby presents with jaundice, dark urine and pale stools. He is most likely to have

1.Physiologic jaundice of the newborn

2.Breast milk jaundice

3.Gilbert’s syndrome

4.Biliary atresia

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:17:45

Acute appendicitis

1.In preschool children, it usually presents with the so-called “classic” signs and symptoms

2. It is associated with appendiceal obstruction in 10% of cases

3. Histologically, it shows neutrophilic infiltration of the muscularis layer

4.The clinical diagnosis is falsely positive in about 50% of cases

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:08:31

Acute pancreatitis

1.may be caused by Helminth infection

2.causes hypercalcaemia

3.develops in 50% of patients with gallstones

4. leads to inhibition of elastase

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:32:28

Acute pancreatitis

1. Is associated with increased serum amylase concentration without elevation in serum lipase concentration

2.Occurs most often in later life

3.Occurs in about 5% of patients with gallstones

4.When associated with alcohol is not usually preceded by chronic pancreatitis

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:13:16

After occlusion of a coronary artery

1.the ischaemia is most pronounced in the epicardial region

2.loss of contractility only occurs when ultra structural changes in the myocyte are present

3. reperfusion of the ischaemic area can result in new cellular damage, due to the generation of oxygen free radicals

4.None of the above

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:46:41

All of the following are cardiac compensatory responses that occur in heart failure except

1.Cardiac muscle fibre stretching

2. Increased adrenergic receptors on cardiac cells

3.Chamber hypertrophy

4. Decreased heart rate

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:49:45

All of the following are precancerous except

1.Chronic gastritis of pernicious anaemia

2.Solar keratosis

3.Crohn’s disease


Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:50:13

An infectious complication of transfusion

1.Is most commonly Hepatitis C

2.Is most commonly Hepatitis B

3. Is rarely transmission of HIV since screening was instituted

4.Never includes gonorrhoea or malaria

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:46:06

Anaplasia is not characterised by


2.Abundant nuclear DNA

3. A nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of 1:6

4.Coarsely clumped chromatin

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:48:25

Cellular events in acute inflammation include all of the following except

1. redistribution of preformed adhesion molecules to the cell surface of leukocytes

2.adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes to endothelium

3.leukocyte activation

4.margination of macrophages to vessel walls

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:53:39

Coagulative necrosis

1.results from necrosis in which cellular enzymatic digestion predominates over denaturation

2. is characterised by a marked leukocytic infiltrate

3.Is uncommon after myocardial infarction

4.usually occurs after irreversible ischaemic cellular damage

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:00:05

Granulomatous inflammation

1.may sometimes be a component of the acute inflammatory response B. E.

2.indicates the presence of tuberculosis

3. is always associated with the presence of giant cells

4.may result from non-immune mechanisms

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:01:45

HIV infection

1. Is caused by rhinovirus

2. Results in increased CD4 and T cell memory

3.Results in inversion at the CD4-CD8 ratio

4. Increases immature precursors of CD4 and T cells

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:28:44


1.Occurs after partial hepatectomy

2.Refers to an increase in the size of cells

3.Is always a pathologic process

4.Often occurs in cardiac and skeletal muscle

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:34:21

IgE mediated Type I hypersensitivity reactions require the action of which lymphocyte class

1. CD8 T cells and B cells

2.Tµ2 T cells and B cells

3.Tµ1 T cells and B cells

4.Natural Killer cells and B cells

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:25:32

In a healthy individual over the age of 5 years, lymphocytes are mainly found in

1.bone marrow, thymus, spleen

2.liver, thymus, spleen

3.lymph nodes, spleen, thymus

4.bone marrow, spleen, liver

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:04:23

In acute inflammation, all of the following are true except

1. there is contraction of endothelial cells

2.there is a mononuclear infiltrate

3. there is induction of adhesion molecules on endothelium

4. there is production of arachidonic acid metabolites

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:52:32

In reversible cell injury, all are true except

1.ATP depletion is responsible for acute cellular swelling

2.Can cause myocardial cells to cease contraction within 60 seconds C.

3.ATP is generated anaerobically from creatine phosphate

4.Mitochondrial swelling and degranulation of ER are the hallmarks of irreversible cellular damage

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:30:41

Infective endocarditis the acute form, is most commonly caused by streptococci

2.involves abnormal valves in most acute cases

3. is confirmed by positive blood cultures in less than 50% of cases

4. may cause splenic infarction

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:00:16

Iron deficiency anaemia features

1.a normal haematocrit

2.increased serum ferritin

3.normal mean red cell volume

4.None of the above

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:57:42

Major immune abnormalities associated with HIV infection include all of the following except


2.inversion of CD4-CD8 ratio

3.decreased delayed hypersensitivity reactions

4.decreased monocyte HLA class II expression

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:10:49

Mediators of septic shock include all of the following except




4.TNF antibodies

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:21:32


1. Is irreversible

2.Is commonly a change from squamous to columnar epithelium

3.An example is the transformation of epithelial cells into chondroblasts to produce cartilage

4.Retinoids may play a role

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:31:45

Metaplasia is seen in all of the following except

1.respiratory epithelium of cigarette smokers

2.vitamin A excess

3. Barrett’s oesophagitis

4. epithelium of a pancreatic duct containing stones

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:23:19

Metastatic calcification

1.Causes widespread tissue damage

2.Occurs with normal calcium levels

3.Can be caused by systemic sarcoidosis

4.Occurs in hypothyroidism

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:35:23

Most pulmonary emboli

1. cause centrally located pulmonary haemorrhage

2. cause pulmonary infarction

3.cause acute right heart failure

4.are clinically silent

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:26:19

Mumps virus is a


2.Herpes virus


4.Pox virus

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:36:34

Prothrombogenic factors include all of the following except

1.Platelet activating factor

2.Von Willebrand factor

3.Nitric oxide

4.Tissue factor

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:51:12

Prothrombotic characteristics of endothelium include

1.Plasminogen activator


3.von Willebrand factor


Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:37:36

Regarding giant cell arteritis, which statement is not correct

1. Affects medium arteries

2.Affects small arteries including vertebral

3.Affects small arteries including ophthalmic

4.Has no gastrointestinal manifestations

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:40:00

Regarding hypersensitivity reactions

1.In anaphylaxis, IgE is bound to mast cells by their Fab portions to release vasoactive amines

2.Goodpasture’s syndrome is an example of type III hypersensitivity reaction

3.Farmer’s lung is a type III reaction to micropolyspora species

4. Delayed hypersensitivity is mediated by macrophages

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:06:33

Regarding peptic ulceration

1. it occurs most commonly in the antrum of the stomach

2. it has a strong genetic influence

3.there is H. pylori infection of the mucosa in 50% of patients with duodenal ulceration is more frequent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:02:40

Removal of sutures from a wound at day 7 coincides with a wound strength of

1.1% of unwounded skin strength

2. 10% of unwounded skin strength

3.50% of unwounded skin strength

4.75% of unwounded skin strength

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:02:37

Select the false statement concerning atherosclerosis

1.Familial hypercholesterolaemia is associated with inadequate hepatic uptake of LDL

2.CMV has been detected in human atheromatous plaques

3.Fibrous atheromatous plaques are capable of regression

4.Atherosclerosis is associated with medial calcific sclerosis

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:44:59

Select the true statement concerning atherosclerosis

1.Congenital absence of LDL cholesterol leads to premature atherosclerosis

2.Thoracic aorta is more likely to be involved than the abdominal

3.Fatty streaks appear in the aortas of children as young as 1 year

4.Fatty streaks are destined to become atherosclerotic plaques

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:43:27

Shock in burn patients is primarily due to

1.Neurogenic factors


3.Myocardial depression factor

4.All of the above

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:50:27

Successful immune response to HIV during the acute phase of infection results from

1. increase in the CD4+ lymphocyte numbers

2.appearance of anti-HIV antibodies

3.Type III hypersensitivity reaction

4. development of CD8+ virus specific cytotoxic cells

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:11:44

Systemic lupus erythematosus

1. has a female : male gender ratio of 2:1

2. is characterised by antinuclear antibodies (ANAs)

3. rarely involves the kidney associated with a seronegative arthropathy causing marked joint erosion

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:55:39

The acute nephritic syndrome has all of the following features except




4.Hyaline casts

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:14:44

The commonest site of a Berry aneurysm in the Circle of Willis is

1. junction of anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries

2.junction of middle cerebral and internal carotid arteries

3.bifurcation of the basilar artery

4. the middle cerebral artery

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:24:18

The factor conferring the most risk in thromboembolic disease is


2.atrial fibrillation

3.oral contraceptives

4.prolonged bed rest

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:54:19

The histological appearance of contraction brands in association with acute myocardialinfarction indicate

1.The histological appearance of contraction brands in association with acute myocardialinfarction indicate

2.early aneurysmal formation

3.compensatory responses to decreased myocardial contractility

4. a right ventricular infarct

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:42:30

The immediate lethal dose of radiation exposure for humans in a non-mass casualty situation is

1. 50 rads

2.150 rads

3.250 rads

4.450 rads

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:51:28

The major abnormalities of immune function in AIDS are characterised by

1.Inversion of the CD4-CD8 ratio

2. Increase in the number of memory T cells

3.Hypogammaglobulinaemia and decreased circulating immune complexes

4. Decreased secretion of TNF and IL-1

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:04:58

The most common cause of pericarditis is


2.drug hypersensitivity

3.trauma myocardial infarction

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:18:34

The most common cause of Traveller’s diarrhoea is





Posted Date:-2022-07-27 07:56:37

The most common site of origin of emboli causing cerebrovascular disease is

1.common carotid artery

2.internal carotid artery

3. the heart

4. either end of basilar artery

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:49:57

The virus causing molluscum contagiosum belongs to the following viral family


1. adeno




Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:24:54

Thrombus formation is inhibited by

1.Von Willebrands factor

2. IL-1

3.Alpha 2 macroglobulin


Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:26:45

Transplant rejection involves

1.Type IV hypersensitivity only

2. Type IV and III hypersensitivity only

3.Type IV, III and II hypersensitivity only

4.Type IV and II hypersensitivity only

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:07:54

Which of the following is not a feature of acute Crohn’s disease

1. segmental lesions

2.serosal involvement

3.fissures penetrating deep into the wall of affected mucosa

4. inflammatory pseudo-polyps

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:37:08

Which of the following is not a para-neoplastic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma

1.ectopic ADH secretion

2.migratory thrombophlebitis

3.Eaton-Lambert (myasthenic) syndrome


Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:33:46

Which of the following is true concerning rhabdomyolysis

1.It is caused by injury to smooth muscle

2.Its diagnosis depends on the presence of characteristic physical findings

3.. The final common pathway of injury involves damage to the sarcolemma

4.Renal failure is due to acute glomerular nephritis

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:47:16

Which of the following is true of chronic myeloid leukaemia

1.Most common leukaemia

2.Decreased leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level

3.Usually occurs in patients less than 40 years old

4.Increased WBC count with an abnormal differential

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:49:05

With regard to aortic dissection, which is incorrect

1. it tends to occur in 40-60 year old men

2.approximately 90% of non-traumatic cases occur in patients with antecedent hypertension

3. it is usually associated with marked dilatation of the aorta is unusual in the presence of substantial atherosclerosis

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:49:05

With regard to apoptosis, which of the following is incorrect

1. it may be regarded as a normal physiological process is characterised by chromatin condensation often elicits a strong inflammatory response D. it is the process by which ovaries atrophy in post menopausal women is the process by which ovaries atrophy in post menopausal women

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:52:42

With regard to B lymphocytes

1. they constitute 50% of circulating lymphocytes

2. they are found in germinal centres in the red pulp of the spleen

3. they are genetically programmed to recognise specific antigens by means of antigen specific cell surface receptors

4. they release chemical mediators when attached to IgE Type I hypersensitivity reactions

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:07:05

With regard to cellular injury, all of the following are reversible except

1. decreased ATP

2.intracellular release of lysosomal enzymes

3.decreased Na pump activity

4.detachment of ribosomes

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:55:01

With regard to natural killer lymphocytes

1.constitute less than 5% of blood lymphocytes

2.require opsonisation to enable their killing of cells

3. have a prime role in defense against parasites

4.have an innate ability to lyse tumour cells and virally affected cells

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:05:40

With regard to the acute inflammatory response, which is the most common mechanism of vascular leakage

1. endothelial cell contraction

2.junctional retraction injury

4.leukocyte-dependent leakage

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:53:58

With regard to the leukocyte extravasation of the acute inflammatory response, which of the following is incorrect

1. ELAM-1 is a selectin found on endothelium

2. E and P-selectins bind to oligosaccharides found on neutrophils and monocytes

3. L-selectin is found on neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes

4. ICAM-1 belongs to the immunoglobulin family of molecules, and is found on leukocytes

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 08:22:24

With regard to the role of complement in the acute inflammatory response, which of the following is incorrect

1.C5a is a powerful, chemotactic agent for neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils

2.C5a increases leukocyte adhesion to endothelium by activating leukocytes

3.C3a and C5a are called anaphylatoxins because they cause mast cell degranulation

4.. C3a activates the lipoxygenase pathway in leukocytes

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 05:57:18

With respect to macrophages, which of the following is not true

1.they can produce TNF and IL4 both of which cause fever

2.they have direct tissue toxicity due to the ability to release hydrogen peroxide

3. they have oxygen dependent microbicidal activity

4.they have cytotoxicity against tumour cells

Posted Date:-2022-07-27 06:12:53


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