CloudFormation Interview Questions for Experienced/CloudFormation Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

How to secure data keys using AWS KMS?

The data keys can be are encrypted using a Master Key which could be defined in AWS KMS. Once it is encrypted, encrypted data key can only be decrypted by users with permissions to use the original master key used in encrypting the data key.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:29:36

Can you change the Private IP Address of an EC2 instance while it is running or in a stopped state?

No, a Private IP Address of an EC2 instance cannot be changed. When an EC2 instance is launched, a private IP Address is assigned to that instance at the boot time. This private IP Address is attached to the instance for its entire lifetime and can never be changed.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:25:46

Is there a way to upload a file that is greater than 100 Megabytes in Amazon S3?

Yes, it is possible by using the Multipart Upload Utility from AWS. With the Multipart Upload Utility, larger files can be uploaded in multiple parts that are uploaded independently. You can also decrease upload time by uploading these parts in parallel. After the upload is done, the parts are merged into a single object or file to create the original file from which the parts were created

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:24:19

What are Recovery Time Objective and Recovery Point Objective in AWS?

Recovery Time Objective - It is the maximum acceptable delay between the interruption of service and restoration of service. This translates to an acceptable time window when the service can be unavailable.

Recover Point Objective - It is the maximum acceptable amount of time since the last data restore point. It translates to the acceptable amount of data loss which lies between the last recovery point and the interruption of service.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:23:11

Does CloudFormation support installing software at stack creation time?

Yes, using bootstrapping scripts in CloudFormation you can install packages and services on your EC2 instances by updating the details in CloudFormation template.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:21:26

What is an Instance Store Volume and an EBS Volume?

An Instance Store Volume is temporary storage that is used to store the temporary data required by an instance to function. The data is available as long as the instance is running. As soon as the instance is turned off, the Instance Store Volume gets removed and the data gets deleted.

On the other hand, an EBS Volume represents a persistent storage disk. The data stored in an EBS Volume will be available even after the instance is turned off.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:19:38

What is a Power User Access in AWS?

An Administrator User will be similar to the owner of the AWS Resources. He can create, delete, modify or view the resources and also grant permissions to other users for the AWS Resources.

A Power User Access provides Administrator Access without the capability to manage the users and permissions. In other words, a user with Power User Access can create, delete, modify or see the resources, but he cannot grant permissions to other users.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:18:51

What is a Stateful and a Stateless Firewall?

A Stateful Firewall is the one that maintains the state of the rules defined. It requires you to define only inbound rules. Based on the inbound rules defined, it automatically allows the outbound traffic to flow.

On the other hand, a Stateless Firewall requires you to explicitly define rules for inbound as well as outbound traffic.

For example, if you allow inbound traffic from Port 80, a Stateful Firewall will allow outbound traffic to Port 80, but a Stateless Firewall will not do so.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:18:05

What type of query functionality does DynamoDB support?

DynamoDB supports GET/PUT operations by using a user-defined primary key. It provides flexible querying by letting you query on non-primary vital attributes using global secondary indexes and local secondary indexes.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:16:38

What are the consistency models in DynamoDB?

There are two consistency models In DynamoDB. First, there is the Eventual Consistency Model, which maximizes your read throughput. However, it might not reflect the results of a recently completed write. Fortunately, all the copies of data usually reach consistency within a second. The second model is called the Strong Consistency Model. This model has a delay in writing the data, but it guarantees that you will always see the updated data every time you read it.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:14:46

What is a maintenance window in Amazon RDS? Will your DB instance be available during maintenance events?

RDS maintenance window lets you decide when DB instance modifications, database engine version upgrades, and software patching have to occur. The automatic scheduling is done only for patches that are related to security and durability. By default, there is a 30-minute value assigned as the maintenance window and the DB instance will still be available during these events though you might observe a minimal effect on performance.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:13:59

Which type of scaling would you recommend for RDS and why?

There are two types of scaling - vertical scaling and horizontal scaling. Vertical scaling lets you vertically scale up your master database with the press of a button. A database can only be scaled vertically, and there are 18 different instances in which you can resize the RDS. On the other hand, horizontal scaling is good for replicas. These are read-only replicas that can only be done through Amazon Aurora.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:13:19

How are reserved instances different from on-demand DB instances?

Reserved instances and on-demand instances are the same when it comes to function. They only differ in how they are billed.

Reserved instances are purchased as one-year or three-year reservations, and in return, you get very low hourly based pricing when compared to the on-demand cases that are billed on an hourly basis.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:12:49

Can AWS Config aggregate data across different AWS accounts?

Yes, you can set up AWS Config to deliver configuration updates from different accounts to one S3 bucket, once the appropriate IAM policies are applied to the S3 bucket.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:11:44

How does AWS config work with AWS CloudTrail?

AWS CloudTrail records user API activity on your account and allows you to access information about the activity. Using CloudTrail, you can get full details about API actions such as the identity of the caller, time of the call, request parameters, and response elements. On the other hand, AWS Config records point-in-time configuration details for your AWS resources as Configuration Items (CIs).

You can use a CI to ascertain what your AWS resource looks like at any given point in time. Whereas, by using CloudTrail, you can quickly answer who made an API call to modify the resource. You can also use Cloud Trail to detect if a security group was incorrectly configured.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:10:08

How does Amazon Route 53 provide high availability and low latency?

Here’s how Amazon Route 53 provides the resources in question:

Globally Distributed Servers

Amazon is a global service and consequently has DNS services globally. Any customer creating a query from any part of the world gets to reach a DNS server local to them that provides low latency.


Route 53 provides a high level of dependability required by critical applications

Optimal Locations

Route 53 uses a global anycast network to answer queries from the optimal position automatically.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:09:12

What is the difference between a Domain and a Hosted Zone?


A domain is a collection of data describing a self-contained administrative and technical unit. For example, is a domain and a general DNS concept.

Hosted zone

A hosted zone is a container that holds information about how you want to route traffic on the internet for a specific domain. For example, is a hosted zone.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:07:50

What is the difference between Latency Based Routing and Geo DNS?

The Geo Based DNS routing takes decisions based on the geographic location of the request. Whereas, the Latency Based Routing utilizes latency measurements between networks and AWS data centers. Latency Based Routing is used when you want to give your customers the lowest latency possible. On the other hand, Geo Based routing is used when you want to direct the customer to different websites based on the country or region they are browsing from.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:07:01

Explain Connection Draining.

Connection Draining is a feature provided by AWS which enables your servers which are either going to be updated or removed, to serve the current requests.

If Connection Draining is enabled, the Load Balancer will allow an outgoing instance to complete the current requests for a specific period but will not send any new request to it. Without Connection Draining, an outgoing instance will immediately go off and the requests pending on that instance will error out.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:06:29

How does AWS IAM help your business?

IAM enables to:

* Manage IAM users and their access - AWS IAM provides secure resource access to multiple users.

* Manage access for federated users – AWS allows you to provide secure access to resources in your AWS account to your employees and applications without creating IAM roles.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:04:37

What are the managed policies in AWS IAM?

There are two types of managed policies; one that is managed by you and one that is managed by AWS. They are IAM resources that express permissions using IAM policy language. You can create, edit, and manage them separately from the IAM users, groups, and roles to which they are attached.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:03:52

What is the difference between an IAM role and an IAM user?

The two key differences between the IAM role and IAM user are:

* An IAM role is an IAM entity that defines a set of permissions for making AWS service requests, while an IAM user has permanent long-term credentials and is used to interact with the AWS services directly.

* In the IAM role, trusted entities, like IAM users, applications, or an AWS service, assume roles whereas the IAM user has full access to all the AWS IAM functionalities.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:03:23

What are the policies that you can set for your users’ passwords?

Here are some of the policies that you can set:

* You can set a minimum length of the password, or you can ask the users to add at least one number or special characters in it.
* You can assign requirements of particular character types, including uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and non-alphanumeric characters.
* You can enforce automatic password expiration, prevent reuse of old passwords, and request for a password reset upon their next AWS sign in.
* You can have the AWS users contact an account administrator when the user has allowed the password to expire.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:02:42

What do you know about NAT gateways in AWS?

NAT (Network Address Translation) is an AWS service that helps in connecting an EC2 instance to the internet. The EC2 instance used via NAT should be in a private subnet. Not only the internet but NAT can also help in connecting an EC2 instance to other AWS services.

Since we are using the EC2 instance in a private subnet, connecting to the internet via any other means would make it public. NAT helps in retaining the private subnet while establishing a connection between the EC2 instance and the internet. Users can create NAT gateways or NAT instances for establishing a connection between EC2 instances and internet/AWS services.

NAT instances are single EC2 instances, while NAT gateways can be used across various availability zones. If you are creating a NAT instance, it will support a fixed amount of traffic decided by the instance’s size.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 14:01:14

What are the different AWS IAM categories that you can control?

Using AWS IAM, you can do the following:

* Create and manage IAM users
* Create and manage IAM groups
* Manage the security credentials of the users
* Create and manage policies to grant access to AWS services and resources

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:58:30

How can you use AWS WAF in monitoring your AWS applications?

AWS WAF or AWS Web Application Firewall protects your web applications from web exploitations. It helps you control the traffic flow to your applications. With WAF, you can also create custom rules that block common attack patterns. It can be used for three cases: allow all requests, prevent all requests, and count all requests for a new policy.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:57:19

What are Spot Instances and On-Demand Instances?

When AWS creates EC2 instances, there are some blocks of computing capacity and processing power left unused. AWS releases these blocks as Spot Instances. Spot Instances run whenever capacity is available. These are a good option if you are flexible about when your applications can run and if your applications can be interrupted.

On the other hand, On-Demand Instances can be created as and when needed. The prices of such instances are static. Such instances will always be available unless you explicitly terminate them.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:54:52

What is a Custom Metric in CloudWatch?

Custom metrics are user-defined metrics which could be used for monitoring in Cloud Watch. For example, you can create a custom metric to monitor specific application and database parameters running on an EC2.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:54:28

What do you understand by a Security Group?

When you create an instance in AWS, you may or may not want that instance to be accessible from the public network. Moreover, you may want that instance to be accessible from some networks and not from others.

Security Groups are a type of rule-based Virtual Firewall using which you can control access to your instances. You can create rules defining the Port Numbers, Networks, or protocols from which you want to allow access or deny access.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:53:54

What are the advantages of AWS IAM?

AWS IAM enables an administrator to provide granular level access to different users and groups. Different users and user groups may need different levels of access to different resources created. With IAM, you can create roles with specific access-levels and assign the roles to the users.

It also allows you to provide access to the resources to users and applications without creating the IAM Roles, which is known as Federated Access.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:53:37

What is Geo-Targeting in CloudFront?

Geo-Targeting enables the creation of customized content based on the geographic location of the user. This allows you to serve the content which is more relevant to a user. For example, using Geo-Targeting, you can show the news related to local body elections to a user sitting in India, which you may not want to show to a user sitting in the US. Similarly, the news related to Baseball Tournament can be more relevant to a user sitting in the US, and not so relevant for a user sitting in India.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:53:19

How can you use AWS WAF in monitoring your AWS applications?

AWS WAF or AWS Web Application Firewall protects your web applications from web exploitations. It helps you control the traffic flow to your applications. With WAF, you can also create custom rules that block common attack patterns. It can be used for three cases: allow all requests, prevent all requests, and count all requests for a new policy.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:52:54

What are the different uses of the various load balancers in AWS Elastic Load Balancing?

Application Load Balancer
Used if you need flexible application management and TLS termination.

Network Load Balancer
Used if you require extreme performance and static IPs for your applications.

Classic Load Balancer
Used if your application is built within the EC2 Classic network

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:51:58

What are the consistency models for modern DBs offered by AWS?

Eventual Consistency - It means that the data will be consistent eventually, but may not be immediate. This will serve the client requests faster, but chances are that some of the initial read requests may read the stale data. This type of consistency is preferred in systems where data need not be real-time. For example, if you don’t see the recent tweets on Twitter or recent posts on Facebook for a couple of seconds, it is acceptable.

Strong Consistency - It provides an immediate consistency where the data will be consistent across all the DB Servers immediately. Accordingly. This model may take some time to make the data consistent and subsequently start serving the requests again. However, in this model, it is guaranteed that all the responses will always have consistent data.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:51:35

What do you understand by stopping and terminating an EC2 Instance?

Stopping an EC2 instance means to shut it down as you would normally do on your Personal Computer. This will not delete any volumes attached to the instance and the instance can be started again when needed.

On the other hand, terminating an instance is equivalent to deleting an instance. All the volumes attached to the instance get deleted and it is not possible to restart the instance if needed at a later point in time.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:51:05

How do you auto-delete old snapshots?

Here’s the procedure for auto-deleting old snapshots:

1. As per procedure and best practices, take snapshots of the EBS volumes on Amazon S3.
2. Use AWS Ops Automator to handle all the snapshots automatically.
3. This allows you to create, copy, and delete Amazon EBS snapshots.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:50:26

Can you take a backup of EFS like EBS, and if yes, how?

Yes, you can use the EFS-to-EFS backup solution to recover from unintended changes or deletion in Amazon EFS. Follow these steps:

1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console
2. Click the launch EFS-to-EFS-restore button
3. Use the region selector in the console navigation bar to select region
4. Verify if you have chosen the right template on the Select Template page
5. Assign a name to your solution stack
6. Review the parameters for the template and modify them if necessary

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:49:54

What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

EBS is a kind of permanent storage in which the data can be restored at a later point. When you save data in the EBS, it stays even after the lifetime of the EC2 instance. On the other hand, Instance Store is temporary storage that is physically attached to a host machine. With an Instance Store, you cannot detach one instance and attach it to another. Unlike in EBS, data in an Instance Store is lost if any instance is stopped or terminated.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:47:49

How can you automate EC2 backup using EBS?

Use the following steps in order to automate EC2 backup using EBS:

1. Get the list of instances and connect to AWS through API to list the Amazon EBS volumes that are attached locally to the instance.
2. List the snapshots of each volume, and assign a retention period of the snapshot. Later on, create a snapshot of each volume.
3. Make sure to remove the snapshot if it is older than the retention period.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-23 13:47:35

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