E2E Testing Interview Questions for Experienced/E2E Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

What are semi-random test cases?

Semi-random test cases are nothing, but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:34:32

What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

In experience-based techniques, people’s knowledge, skills, and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:33:46

What is negative and positive testing?

A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While positive testing is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:33:04

What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?

Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called ‘white-box’ or ‘glass-box’ techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:32:11

What is the role of moderator in the review process?

The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:31:17

On the basis of which factors you would consider choosing automated testing over manual testing?

Choosing automated testing over manual testing depends on the following factors:

1. Tests require periodic execution.

2. Tests include repetitive steps.

3. Tests execute in a standard runtime environment.

4. Automation is expected to take less time.

5. Automation is increasing reusability.

6. Automation reports are available for every execution.

7. Small releases like service packs include a minor bug fix. In such cases, executing the regression test is sufficient for validation.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:29:46

Mention what the difference between Pilot and Beta testing is?

The difference between a pilot and beta testing is that pilot testing is actually done using the product by the group of users before the final deployment, and in beta testing, we do not input real data, but it is installed at the end customer to validate if the product can be used in production.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:27:44

Is there any difference between quality assurance, quality control, and software testing. If so, what is it?

Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality of the process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the test reports and modifies the process to meet the expectation.

Quality Control (QC) is relevant to the quality of the product. QC not only finds the defects but suggests improvements too. Thus, a process that is set by QA is implemented by QC. QC is the responsibility of the testing team.

Software testing is the process of ensuring that the product which is developed by developers meets the users’ requirements. The aim of performing testing is to find bugs and make sure that they get fixed. Thus, it helps to maintain the quality of the product to be delivered to the customer.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:25:31

How do you perform automated testing in your environment?

Automation testing is a process of executing tests automatically. It reduces the human intervention to a great extent. We use different test automation tools like QTP, Selenium, and WinRunner. Testing tools help in speeding up the testing tasks. These tools allow you to create test scripts to verify the application automatically and also to generate the test reports.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:24:42

What do you mean by defect detection percentage in software testing?

Defect detection percentage (DDP) is a type of testing metric. It indicates the effectiveness of a testing process by measuring the ratio of defects discovered before the release and reported after the release by customers.

For example, let’s say, the QA has detected 70 defects during the testing cycle and the customer reported 20 more after the release. Then, DDP would be: 70/(70 + 20) = 72.1%

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:23:51

When is used Decision table testing?

Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table, the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:22:22

What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?

Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:21:43

What is risk-based testing?

Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:21:02

Difference between Bug, Defect, and Error.

A slip in coding is indicated as an error. The error spotted by a manual tester becomes a defect. The defect which the development team admits is known as a bug. If a built code misses on the requirements, then it is a functional failure.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:19:33

Explain what it means by test harness?

A test harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, and it involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:18:47

Explain what the meaning of Code Walk Through is?

Code Walk Through is the informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:17:59

Mention what the meaning of breath testing is?

Breath testing is a test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:16:56

Mention what the different types of test coverage techniques are?

Different types of test coverage techniques include

* Statement Coverage: It verifies that each line of source code has been executed and tested
* Decision Coverage: It ensures that every decision in the source code is executed and tested
* Path Coverage: It ensures that every possible route through a given part of the code is executed and tested

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:15:58

Mention what bottom-up testing is?

Bottom-up testing is an approach to integration testing, where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:13:28

Explain what the difference between latent and masked defects is?

* Latent defect: A latent defect is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because the sets of conditions were never met

* Masked defect: It is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:12:49

Explain which test cases are written first black boxes or white boxes?

Black box test cases are written first as to write black box test cases; it requires project plan and requirement document all these documents are easily available at the beginning of the project. While writing white box test cases requires more architectural understanding and is not available at the start of the project.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:12:02

Explain how to test documents in a project that span across the software development lifecycle?

The project span across the software development lifecycle in the following manner

* Central/Project test plan: It is the main test plan that outlines the complete test strategy of the project. This plan is used till the end of the software development lifecycle
* Acceptance test plan: This document begins during the requirement phase and is completed at the final delivery
* System test plan: This plan starts during the design plan and proceeds until the end of the project
Integration and Unit test plan: Both these test plans start during the execution phase and last until the final delivery

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:10:30

Mention what the difference between a “defect” and a “failure” in software testing is?

In simple terms when a defect reaches the end customer, it is called a failure while the defect is identified internally and resolved; then it is referred to as a defect.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:09:06

Explain how does a test coverage tool work?

The code coverage testing tool runs parallel while performing testing on the actual product. The code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source code. When the final testing is done, we get a complete report of the pending statements and also get the coverage percentage.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:07:45

Mention what are the categories of defects?

Mainly there are three defect categories

* Wrong: When a requirement is implemented incorrectly.
* Missing: It is a variance from the specification, an indication that a specification was not implemented or a requirement of the customer is not met.
* Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. It is considered as a defect because it is a variance from the existing requirements.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:02:40

How will you handle a conflict amongst your team members?

* I will talk individually to each person and note their concerns
* I will find a solution to the common problems raised by team members
* I will hold a team meeting, reveal the solution and ask people to co-operate

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:01:39

How to generate test cases for “replace a string” method?

a) If characters in new string > characters in the previous string. None of the characters should get truncated

b) If characters in new string< characters in the previous string. Junk characters should not be added

c) Spaces after and before the string should not be deleted

d) String should be replaced only for the first occurrence of the string

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 07:00:43

Mention what the main advantages of statement coverage metric of software testing are?

The benefit of statement coverage metric is that

a) It does not require processing source code and can be applied directly to object code

b) Bugs are distributed evenly through the code, due to which percentage of executable statements covered reflects the percentage of faults discovered

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:59:57

What is Fuzz testing and when it is used?

Fuzz testing is used to detect security loopholes and coding errors in software. In this technique, random data is added to the system in an attempt to crash the system. If vulnerability persists, a tool called fuzz tester is used to determine potential causes. This technique is more useful for bigger projects but only detects a major fault.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:59:22

Explain what N+1 testing is?

The variation of regression testing is represented as N+1. In this technique, the testing is performed in multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle ‘N’ are resolved and re-tested in test cycle N+1. The cycle is repeated unless there are no errors found.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:57:54

Explain what LCSAJ is?

LCSAJ stands for ‘linear code sequence and jump.’ It consists of the following three items

a) Start of the linear sequence of executable statements

b) End of the linear sequence

c) The target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:57:22

What is the DFD (Data Flow Diagram)?

When a “flow of data” through an information system is graphically represented, then it is known as Data Flow Diagram. It is also used for the visualization of data processing.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:56:50

Explain what is “Test Plan Driven” or “Key Word Driven” method of testing?

This technique uses the actual test case document developed by testers using a spreadsheet containing special “key Words”. The key words control the processing.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:54:33

What is the step you would follow once you find the defect?

Once a defect is found you would follow the step

a) Recreate the defect

b) Attach the screenshot

c) Log the defect

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:52:16

In manual testing what are stubs and drivers?

Both stubs and drivers are part of incremental testing. In incremental testing, there are two approaches namely bottom-up and top-down approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing and stub is used for a top-down approach. In order to test the main module, the stub is used, which is a dummy code or program.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:50:43

Which technique should be considered in the script “if there is neither frame id nor frame name”?

If frame name and frame id is not available, then we can use frame by index. For example, there are 3 frames in a web page and if none of them have a frame name and frame id, then we can still select those frames by using frame (zero-based) index attribute. All the frame will have an index number like the first frame would be at index “0”, the second at index “1” and the third at index “2”.

driver.switchTo().frame(int arg0);

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:50:18

What is meant by Defect Cascading?

Defect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. One defect triggers the other defect. When a defect is present in any stage but is not identified, hide to other phases without getting noticed. This will result in an increase in the number of defects.

Let us understand this by an example.

You are designing the Login Module of a WebPage:

In phase 1 – You are designing Register User Module for Login and mobile number is mandatory but you can leave it blank due to a bug that gets unnoticed.

In Phase 2 – You will design the login form having username and password. The password is OTP which will be sent to User’s registered mobile number.

Now as Register module has a bug that mobile number can be left blank so this may lead to Login failure or maybe some system error or crash if a null mobile number is not handled. This is known as defect cascading.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:49:43

What is meant by workbench concept?

A workbench at its core is a way of documenting how a specific activity has to be performed. It is often referred to as phases, steps, and tasks as shown in the following figure.

There are five tasks for every workbench and they are as follows:

1. Input
2. Execute
3. Check
4. Production output
5. Rework

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:49:11

What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?

Object Repository refers to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. With respect to Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:48:08

What is TestNG?

It is an advanced framework which is designed in a way to leverage the benefits by both the developers and testers. It also has an inbuilt exception handling mechanism which lets the program to run without terminating unexpectedly.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:47:24

What is the difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?

Test Matrix: Test matrix is used to capture actual quality, effort, the plan, resources and time required to capture all phases of software testing

Traceability Matrix: Mapping between test cases and customer requirements is known as Traceability Matrix

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:46:44

When is RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix) prepared?

RTM is prepared before test case designing. Requirements should be traceable from review activities.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:45:51

What is test management review and why it is important?

Management review is also referred to as Software Quality Assurance or SQA. SQA focusses more on the software process rather than the software work products. It is a set of activities designed to make sure that the project manager follows the standard process. SQA helps test manager to benchmark the project against the set standards.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:44:49

Explain Load Testing on websites?

To access a website, a user sends a “request” to that website’s server, and the server sends back a response in the form of the website you want to access. To load test a website, quality assurance engineers and automation engineers just need to multiply the number of responses sent to simulate different traffic loads. The web server’s response to the influx of virtual users can then be measured. This is used to determine performance issues and server capacity.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:44:06

On what basis you can map the success of Automation testing?

By following criteria, the success of Automation testing can be mapped:

* Defect Detection Ratio
* Automation execution time and time savings to release the product
* Reduction in Labour & other costs

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:43:37

Which test cases can be automated?

* Smoke test cases
* Regression test cases
* Complex calculation test cases
* Data-driven test cases
* Non-functional test cases

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:43:17

Is Automation testing in agile methodology useful?

Automation testing is very useful in agile methodology and helps in achieving maximum test coverage in a lesser time of the sprint.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:42:54

Which test cases are written first: white boxes or black boxes?

Usually, black box test cases are written first and white box test cases later. To write black box test cases we need the requirement document and, design or project plan. These documents are easily available at the initial start of the project. White box test cases cannot be started in the initial phase of the project because they need more architecture clarity which is not available at the start of the project. So normally white box test cases are written after black box test cases are written.

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:42:35

On what basis you can arrive at an estimation for your project?

To estimate your project, you have to consider the following points:

* Divide the whole project into the smallest tasks
* Allocate each task to team members
* Estimate the effort required to complete each task
* Validate the estimation

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:41:58

What are the common mistakes which create issues?

* Matching resources to wrong projects
* Test manager lack of skills
* Not listening to others
* Poor Scheduling
* Underestimating
* Ignoring the small problems
* Not following the process

Posted Date:- 2021-11-01 06:41:19

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