||Struts 1 requires Action
classes to extend an abstract base class. A common problem in Struts 1 is
programming to abstract classes instead of interfaces.
||An Struts 2 Action may
Action interface, along with other interfaces to
enable optional and custom services. Struts 2 provides a base ActionSupport
class to implement commonly used interfaces. Albeit, the Action interface is
not required. Any POJO object with a
signature can be used as an Struts 2 Action object.
||Struts 1 Actions are
singletons and must be thread-safe since there will only be one instance of
a class to handle all requests for that Action. The singleton strategy
places restrictions on what can be done with Struts 1 Actions and requires
extra care to develop. Action resources must be thread-safe or synchronized.
||Struts 2 Action objects are
instantiated for each request, so there are no thread-safety issues. (In
practice, servlet containers generate many throw-away objects per request,
and one more object does not impose a performance penalty or impact garbage
||Struts 1 Actions have
dependencies on the servlet API since the HttpServletRequest and
HttpServletResponse is passed to the
execute method when an
Action is invoked.
|Struts 2 Actions are not
coupled to a container. Most often the servlet contexts are represented as
simple Maps, allowing Actions to be tested in isolation. Struts 2 Actions
can still access the original request and response, if required. However,
other architectural elements reduce or eliminate the need to access the
HttpServetRequest or HttpServletResponse directly.
||A major hurdle to testing
Struts 1 Actions is that the
execute method exposes the Servlet
API. A third-party extension, Struts TestCase, offers a set of mock object
for Struts 1.
|Struts 2 Actions can be
tested by instantiating the Action, setting properties, and invoking
methods. Dependency Injection support also makes testing simpler.
||Struts 1 uses an ActionForm
object to capture input. Like Actions, all ActionForms must extend a base
class. Since other JavaBeans cannot be used as ActionForms, developers
often create redundant classes to capture input. DynaBeans can used as an
alternative to creating conventional ActionForm classes, but, here too,
developers may be redescribing existing JavaBeans.
|Struts 2 uses Action
properties as input properties, eliminating the need for a second input
object. Input properties may be rich object types which may have their own
properties. The Action properties can be accessed from the web page via the
taglibs. Struts 2 also supports the ActionForm pattern, as well as POJO form
objects and POJO Actions. Rich object types, including business or domain
objects, can be used as input/output objects. The ModelDriven feature
simplifies taglb references to POJO input objects.
||Struts 1 integrates with
JSTL, so it uses the JSTL EL. The EL has basic object graph traversal, but
relatively weak collection and indexed property support.
||Struts 2 can use JSTL, but
the framework also supports a more powerful and flexible expression language
called "Object Graph Notation Language" (OGNL).
|Binding values into views
||Struts 1 uses the standard
JSP mechanism for binding objects into the page context for access.
||Struts 2 uses a "ValueStack"
technology so that the taglibs can access values without coupling your view
to the object type it is rendering. The ValueStack strategy allows reuse of
views across a range of types which may have the same property name but
different property types.
||Struts 1 ActionForm
properties are usually all Strings. Struts 1 uses Commons-Beanutils for type
conversion. Converters are per-class, and not configurable per instance.
||Struts 2 uses OGNL for type
conversion. The framework includes converters for basic and common object
types and primitives.
||Struts 1 supports manual
validation via a
validate method on the ActionForm, or through
an extension to the Commons Validator. Classes can have different validation
contexts for the same class, but cannot chain to validations on sub-objects.
|Struts 2 supports manual
validation via the
validate method and the XWork Validation
framework. The Xwork Validation Framework supports chaining validation into
sub-properties using the validations defined for the properties class type
and the validation context.
|Control Of Action Execution
||Struts 1 supports separate
Request Processors (lifecycles) for each module, but all the Actions in the
module must share the same lifecycle.
||Struts 2 supports creating
different lifecycles on a per Action basis via Interceptor Stacks. Custom
stacks can be created and used with different Actions, as needed.